Red Wine, Resveratrol & the Gut

Red Wine, Resveratrol & the Gut

Red Wine and the gut by Queen of the Thrones

Red Wine, Resveratrol & the Gut

Written by: Marisol Teijeiro N.D. (inactive)
Reviewed by: Victoria Williams R.H.N.

Est. reading time: 10 minutes.

What is Resveratol?

Did you know that the pinot noir grape is so weak that it actually has to produce a fungus on its skin in order to survive? So, the problem with drinking red wine isn’t necessarily alcohol, but the fungus that grows on the skin of the grape itself. It is a product of fermentation that gets into the body and upsets the microbiome.

Who doesn’t love to have a nice relaxing glass of red wine after a long day? And sure, it’s alcohol, but it’s okay because red wine is good for you, right? Well, my friends, this may be true (in small doses!) because even though NO amount of alcohol is good for you, red wine pleads a case because it contains the powerful antioxidant, resveratrol.

Resveratrol does many wonderful things for the body, specifically in the gut, which makes it an excellent nutrient for people with digestive conditions.

Resveratrol in Red wine by Queen of the Thrones

I wanted to talk about resveratrol because, well hey, everyone loves a good glass of red wine, right? One of the first questions you probably have before starting a cleanse is, “Really?? Do I have to give up red wine??” And the answer is yes, ideally

Although, I’ve recently discovered a way to prepare it that makes it okay to enjoy on a cleanse, albeit in very minute dosages, for a therapeutic effect. I’ll spill the beans on how exactly to do this later on in this post.

Resveratrol is a plant compound that acts as a powerful antioxidant in our bodies. It’s not only found in grapes and red wine, but also in smaller amounts in blueberries, tomatoes, peanuts, dark chocolate, and apples.

Resveratrol Concentration in Grapes

The grape is an interesting fruit with the pinot noir grape being the ‘weakest’ grape that grows well in Oregon, Italy, and France (legendary here!), yet it has the highest antioxidant content, specifically resveratrol1. Pinot noir is thought to be the healthiest of red wines.

Pinot Noir

Believe it or not, the weaker the grape, the stronger the antioxidant. In red wine, it’s pinot noir grapes. In terms of juice, it would be the Concord grape. They actually have one of the highest nutritional profiles but they are incredibly sweet too (which means high in sugar).

The way grapes mix their sugar and antioxidants makes our food choices a bit tricky. They’re super healthy, which is great. But it also means we need to be careful about how much we eat to find the right balance. So, when you’re grabbing that glass of red wine or a serving of grape juice, just keep in mind this mix of good stuff and things to be cautious about. It can help you make smarter and more balanced decisions for your diet.

Queen of the Thrones pinot noir infographic

Concord Grape Diet

Have you ever heard of the old grape diet? Where you basically eat nothing but grapes for three days…

Stay with me, as there actually might be something to this. When reading Genesis (the first chapter of the Bible), and in the biblical days to cleanse, they would basically not consume anything for the first 3 days. So you could do a grape juice fast for the first 3 days, along with water and green tea to help clean up your system (and also take in a ton of powerful antioxidants).

What Does Resveratrol Do?

What does resveratrol do by Queen of the Thrones

Resveratrol may help women lose weight and maintain healthy estrogen levels2 3. Estrogen dominance is a problem that can lead to gain weight, which can cause your body to produce more estrogen.

It basically becomes a  a vicious cycle of gaining weight and having high estrogen, which causes symptoms like breast tenderness, moodiness, depression, and anxiety. Causing you to feel like you’re all over the map… Can you relate? It is not a fun condition to be stuck in and resveratrol may be helpful with these symptoms.

Resveratrol in the Gut

So, what does it do for the gut?

Flavonoids are very important in keeping the gut mucosal membrane lining healthy4.

If the gut lining isn’t strong and healthy, it weakens the barrier, making it hard for the gut to protect the body from outside food. It’s crucial for the gut barrier to stay strong for optimal functioning.

Maintaining a Healthy Gut Lining

So, we need to work on strategies to help keep this barrier closed and strong, agreed? What closes the barrier most profoundly? Relaxation! That’s right, NO STRESS! When you are stressed, your body is in the sympathetic state, and cortisol is pumping. In this state, your gut mucosal membrane lining is weakened, or “leaky” as it is often called.

Leaky Gut was a huge term in the 80s and 90s and people still use it – also known as leaky gut syndrome. Now, a leaky gut is, in a sense, a stressed out person who has holes in their intestines, meaning their barrier is no longer working. .

They’ve lost the integrity of the barrier, and things that are not supposed to get through, do, causing things to leak through that are not in the size they should be. When this happens, the body can’t recognize them which causes irritation and allergies.

Maintain a Healthy Gut Lining with Queen of the Thrones

Stool Transit Time

Did you know that stool transit time can actually dictate the number of allergies you have? The less that you go, the more allergies you may have5. Interesting agreed?

The duration it takes for stool to move from the mouth to the anus (or anal transit time), is influenced by stool transit time. Understanding your transit time provides various insights into your body’s functions and conditions.

You Are What You Absorb

Now, resveratrol helps with keeping the gut lining integral. It’s actually imperative to it. In supplement formulas, I add in resveratrol all the time and I make sure people are getting it from their diet as well.

Benefits of resveratrol for your organism by Queen of the Thrones

What’s even more important is that people are absorbing and digesting things well. We need to optimize the absorption capacity in our guts in order to really reap the health benefits of resveratrol in our food, drink, and supplements.

Food Hygiene 

Resveratrol is awesome to get from red wine, although the bacteria and fermentation products make it not-so-great on a cleanse. So how do we get around this?

Alternatively, we can use grapes, but we need to wash them well. I’m going to teach you how to wash them to reduce the bacterial load.

Now, I don’t want to get into the hygiene hypothesis… The thing is, this isn’t something you need to do long term, just until you establish a healthier barrier and a healthy microbiome. When the microbiome is functioning well it can tolerate more bacterial load. Makes sense, right?

So, we need to give our microbiome a chance to reset itself within the body, which could take 3-6 months, a year, or even 2 years… It depends how weakened it is and it depends on how compliant you are.

Resveratrol in other dietary sources by Queen of the Thrones

To Reset Your Gut, You Have 2 Options

  1. You can reset it by a little wee bit at a time which takes a long time, OR…
  2. You go all in! Change your practice step by step for the fast win.

    The second option makes more sense! Agreed?

    So, in order to reset the environment, we need to clear what is coming in, allowing the body to rebalance in its own natural way. When we allow it the space to do what it needs to do – that is digest, absorb and eliminate, we support this process that much more. 

    My favorite tool to do this with is Castor Oil Packs.

How Do Castor Oil Packs Help You Reset Your Gut?

1. Relaxation

Parasympathetic tone, practicing the pause. How do we get more of the relaxed state as opposed to the stressed state?

Castor Oil Packs are like the escape button for your nervous system, which is more related to the pack rather than the actual oil. That’s because when the pack sits on the skin, it stimulates receptors in the skin of the nervous system.

Did you know that tactile soft-touch actually helps to support that area7. This soft, pleasurable touch also stimulates hormones, like oxytocin – the love and connection hormone, as well as dopamine8 – the pleasure hormone of the brain. 

2. Inflammation & Alkalinity

Wherever there is inflammation there is acidity, so reducing inflammation increases alkalinity. The enzymes of our bodies cannot work without alkalinity. Our enzymes need proper pH to function well, and Castor Oil Packs may help support this environment and balance inflammation.

Moreover, Castor Oil has been shown to be as effective as capsaicin for pain relief (without the irritating effect)9.

Queen of the Thrones® Castor Oil Packs help to reduce Inflammation and Alkalinity

3. Maintain Glutathione Levels & Support Detox Pathways

There are not many ways to get glutathione, our super important detoxifying compound. You can take glutathione supplements, but they haven’t been shown to be super effective. You can also get it from whey protein, but this is an issue for a lot of people with allergies and sensitivities. A third way to get it is from rooibos tea, green tea, or red raspberry leaf tea to improve glutathione in the gut.

Supplementation with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and magnesium can help with glutathione levels, however, most of us are already very deficient in magnesium so the body will first use the magnesium for what it needs, before converting it to glutathione. Sometimes it can be dose-limiting too, because of the potential laxative effect of magnesium.

IV and injection is another way of getting glutathione, but this requires going to a clinic every time, which isn’t very convenient, agreed?

A Castor Oil Pack worn on the liver may help with the recycling of glutathione. There was a study done on rat lenses where they put the lenses in a dish of glutathione solution, and one in a dish of Castor Oil. The glutathione levels were actually maintained BETTER in the Castor Oil solution10.

How do castor oil packs help gut health by Queen of the Thrones

4. Support the regulation of bowels

Transit time is very important. Without a normal transit time, you may experience problems with your microbiome, allergies, and toxins recirculating in the body. Normal transit time for men is around 1.7 days, and for women it is higher at 2.3 days11.

Why is it higher for women? Women have more hormones that play a role in their transit time. If progesterone levels are low, it can contribute to a slower transit time.  Castor Oil Packs are thought to help support regular movement of your bowels, which, in turn, may help your digestion transit times.

5. Break down Biofilm

Biofilm is basically a sticky coating of glycoproteins and hyaluronic acid, a matrix created by bacteria from their waste products. It’s no different than what surrounds all of the cells of our body. It’s like an extracellular matrix made for bacteria to keep them safe from evil enemies on the outside.

The only problem is that these bacteria are actually the evil enemies to us, because they are inoculating a gut that should be healthy. They’re straight up con artists, which is why I call them “conbiotics”. You see, bacteria is really good for us, and “commensal” bacteria is actually awesome!

Commensal bacteria create vitamins for us, like the ever important B vitamins, as well as L-butyrate and short-chain fatty acids which help to heal the gut lining. It’s amazing what they do for us! But unfortunately, the bad guys can create gas that basically slows our transit time down, like hydrogen disulfide and methane gas12.

 

Queen of the Thrones® Castor Oil Pack for Liver helps to break down biofilm

For this reason, it’s super important to address our biofilm. There aren’t many natural substances that have the ability to break it down. Castor Oil is one of these natural substances, also helping to stimulate nitric oxide passageways!

And because nitric oxide is a gasotransmitter, which is basically a gaseous messenger molecule involved in signaling to open up blood vessels, it is believed to help balance inflammation. They’re calling it one of the newest anti-aging molecules. Red wine, grapes, and beets are all food sources of nitric oxide.

Did you know that you tend to go to the bathroom more often when you have higher levels of progesterone? Ladies, right before your period do you find that you are going to the bathroom more frequently? This is because your progesterone levels spike just before menstruation, causing your transit time to speed up.

Castor Oil Packs are such a simple practice that work on these 5 foundational functions…

1. Relaxation

2. Inflammation

3. Antioxidant status

4. The bowels

5. The microbiome

This supports everything, from absorbing, digesting, working well, and eliminating where it needs to. 

Get your own super easy, 2-step Queen of the Thrones® Liver Castor Oil Pack.

Gut Lining and Hormones

Resveratrol basically acts like an antioxidant that helps support the gut lining, and at the same time balances out hormones. Our gut lining is very dependent on our hormones, and resveratrol helps in the detoxification of estrogen.

When you have better-balanced levels of estrogen, you will have sufficient levels of progesterone that help you go to the bathroom well and maintain a regular transit time.

Dietary Intake of Resveratrol

1. Royal Red

If you’re on any kind of cleansing diet you want to do it the smart way and pasteurize it. Pasteurization, according to Louis Pasteur, was done via a flash-fry method. So basically you boil water, add it to red wine then cool it down immediately. Plus, it’s a great way to get rid of the majority of bacteria and fermentation products that may be in red wine, causing problems for the body.

Try to avoid South America and Californian wines, because they’ve been shown to have high levels of toxicity in them. Organic wines from the European Union-Spain, Italy, France, and Pinot Noir are best. Wines from New Zealand, Australia, Canada, and Oregon are also good options.

Queen of the Thrones recommends a dietary intake of resveratrol for better gut health

How to Flash Pasteurize Red Wine:

Looking to enjoy your red wine in a healthier way? Here’s your Red Wine Recipe below! 

    1. 1. 1 oz red wine
    2. 4 oz boiling water
    3. Throw in 5 ice cubes
    4. Sip and enjoy!

      And there you have it,  a nice cider that I like to call it the Royal Red! Another option is to add carbonated water and ice for a spritzer type drink

Queen of the Thrones Royal red recipe

Grape juice is another option for dietary intake of resveratrol. As mentioned before, Concord grapes have the highest antioxidant content. With grape juice though, water it down because it’s very sweet, therefore very high in sugar!

2. Grapes

Good ‘ole grapes are also a great way to get resveratrol into your system. But, remember what we talked about in regards to the fungus that they produce to protect themselves? We need to wash it off with a handy dandy acid-cleansing wash.

How to make an Acid-Cleansing Wash

You will need:

  • 1 part white vinegar
  • 1/4 part hydrogen peroxide
  • 5 parts water
  • 1 tsp baking soda

Step 1: Put grapes into a bowl.

Step 2: Add the mixture of liquids and drop in the baking soda. (You can also do this with any dried goods like rice, grains, and legumes.) This step takes off the bacterial load and grapes are super important to do this for.

So the next time you reach for your glass of red wine, I hope you will see it in a whole new light. 

Make sure to practice your Castor Oil Pack for Liver so you can help your body absorb the awesome benefits of resveratrol, and use these food hygiene tricks to limit the amount of bacterial load coming into your beautiful temple.

Are you a practitioner, health coach or wellness influencer? If you’re interested in recommending our easy-to-use tools and practically applying them in your health and wellness professional practice, in clinic, or online with the people you serve, you can join now!

Click here for references

1. Lukas Snopek 1 ID , Jiri Mlcek 1,*, Lenka Sochorova 2 , Mojmir Baron 2 , Irena Hlavacova 1 , Tunde Jurikova 3 ID , Rene Kizek 4 , Eva Sedlackova 1 and Jiri Sochor 2. Contribution of Red Wine Consumption to Human Health Protection. Molecules. Received: 15 May 2018; Accepted: 9 July 2018; Published: 11 July 2018 https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/399f/b972ac0e63c75459c5fb11bf303f4e2677a2.pdf

2. Bagchi D1, Das DKTosaki ABagchi MKothari SC. Benefits of resveratrol in women’s health. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 2001;27(5-6):233-48.

3. Rupali Sharma,1 Neel Kamal Sharma,2 and M. Thungapathra1 Resveratrol regulates body weight in healthy and ovariectomized rats Nutr Metab (Lond). 2017; 14: 30. Published online 2017 Apr 14. doi: 10.1186/s12986-017-0183-5 PMID: 28413432

3. Rupali Sharma,1 Neel Kamal Sharma,2 and M. Thungapathra1 Resveratrol regulates body weight in healthy and ovariectomized rats Nutr Metab (Lond). 2017; 14: 30. Published online 2017 Apr 14. doi: 10.1186/s12986-017-0183-5 PMID: 28413432

5. Johan Bohlin,1,* Erik Dahlin,1,* Julia Dreja,2 Bodil Roth,1 Olle Ekberg,2 and Bodil Ohlsson1 Longer colonic transit time is associated with laxative and drug use, lifestyle factors, and symptoms of constipation Acta Radiol Open. 2018 Oct; 7(10): 2058460118807232. Published online 2018 Oct 22. doi: 10.1177/2058460118807232 PMID: 30364803

6. Lewis SJ1, Heaton KW. Stool form scale as a useful guide to intestinal transit time. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1997 Sep;32(9):920-4.

7. Walker SC1, Trotter PD2, Swaney WT2, Marshall A3, Mcglone FP4. C-tactile afferents: Cutaneous mediators of oxytocin release during affiliative tactile interactions? Neuropeptides. 2017 Aug;64:27-38. doi: 10.1016/j.npep.2017.01.001. Epub 2017 Jan 19.

8. Rolls ET et all. Representations of pleasant and painful touch in the human orbitofrontal and cingulate cortices. Cereb Cortex. 2003 Mar;13(3):308-17. ( Dopamine release, Limbic System of brain- Fatty Meal Satisfaction)

9. Vieira C et al. .Effect of ricinoleic acid in acute and subchronic experimental models of inflammation. Mediators Inflamm. 2000;9(5):223-8.

10. Holm TBrøgger-Jensen MRJohnson LKessel L.Glutathione preservation during storage of rat lenses in optisol-GS and castor oil. PLoS One. 2013 Nov 19;8(11):e79620. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079620. eCollection 2013.

11. Johan Bohlin,1,* Erik Dahlin,1,* Julia Dreja,2 Bodil Roth,1 Olle Ekberg,2 and Bodil Ohlsson1 Longer colonic transit time is associated with laxative and drug use, lifestyle factors, and symptoms of constipation Acta Radiol Open. 2018 Oct; 7(10): 2058460118807232. Published online 2018 Oct 22. doi: 10.1177/2058460118807232 PMID: 30364803

12. Suri J1, Kataria R2,1, Malik Z2,1, Parkman HP2,1, Schey R2,1. Elevated methane levels in small intestinal bacterial overgrowth suggests delayed small bowel and colonic transit. Medicine (Baltimore). 2018 May;97(21):e10554. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000010554.

Disclaimer

Disclaimer: Any opinions, advice, statements, services, offers, information or content expressed or made available by third parties, including information providers, are those of the respective authors or distributors. Neither Queen of the Thrones® nor any third-party provider of information guarantees the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any content. This communication does not create a doctor-patient relationship. Information provided does not replace the advice of your health care practitioner. If you happen to purchase anything we promote, in this or any of our communications, it’s likely Queen of the Thrones® will receive some kind of affiliate compensation. Still, we only promote content and products that we truly believe in and share with our friends, family and patients. If you ever have a concern with anything we share, please let us know at care@queenofthethrones.com. We want to make sure we are always serving Our Queendom at the highest level.

How to cleanse while you sleep with Castor Oil Packs

How to cleanse while you sleep with Castor Oil Packs

How to Cleanse while you sleep with Queen of the Thrones® Castor Oil Packs

How to cleanse while you sleep with Castor Oil Packs

Written by: Victoria Williams R.H.N. Victoria Williams Director of Operations at Queen of the Thrones Victoria Williams R.H.N.
Victoria is Head of Operations at Queen of the Thrones®. Victoria obtained a Pre-Health Science Certificate with Honours from Georgian College, which ignited her passion for natural wellness and nutrition.
Full bio

Medically reviewed by: Melanie Swackhammer, BA

Est. reading time: 10 minutes.

 

Everybody wants to cleanse when it’s spring, would you agree?

While cleansing is a natural body function, did you know it doesn’t happen just once a year? In fact, it’s a daily occurrence – correction, it’s a nightly occurrence.

Here you will learn how to cleanse while you sleep with Queen of the Thrones® Castor Oil Packs and the Eye Compress no matter the time of year.

So when your patients, and you, are looking for support in removing the discomforts of leaky gut and hormone imbalance symptoms from the stress they’ve been dealing with, to feel their best in their bodies with the energy of an Olympic athlete… wanting it all now, and by now they mean yesterday…

You’ll be ready to share an easy, doable, Queen of the Thrones® Day & Night Detox Kit.

The above scenario sounds all too familiar? Correct?

This is a perfect example of what you find yourself or your patient saying…

Balance your Health and Recover your Energy and with Queen of the Thrones Castor Oil Packs

“I’m so desperately wanting to clean up my life, and not just emptying my closets and decluttering my house… It’s me! I don’t have the energy to do everything I want to do. I’m constipated, always exhausted, can’t sleep and I’m so stressed, and I feel like my brain is all fogged up.”

And then the question comes…

Can I cleanse & detox with a supplement?

Cleansing with Queen of the Thrones Castor Oil Packs help to improve your health

Ah yes, the one and done supplemental band-aid prescription. Everybody wants it. Even you and you know better. But that’s ok, because it’s human nature, especially living in today’s day and age.

We want it now, and by now I mean yesterday. Can you relate?

But you look back on your life, and what have the quick fixes done for you? Nothing, because nobody benefits from it in the long run. It may feel good for a period of time but leaves you in the same place you started in. A rut. Agreed?

The key to cleansing and detoxing isn’t seasonal, it’s nightly

What Works? It’s not something you just do in the spring, although it’s a great time to start. What really shifts overtime and improves your leaky gut and hormone Imbalance, is the regular practice of supporting what your body does best.

Sleeping, resting, healing and cleaning!

Yes, that’s right, easy practices that you repeat nightly that become as easy and mindless as brushing your teeth because you know you need to brush off the biofilm for good dental health to prevent cavities, agreed?

Well, your body is no different. There is a way to support your regular, nightly and daytime cleansing.

What about dairy?

You know as much as you, or your patients would love to do a “trendy” cleanse or detox that, for most of us, is just too hard. Too many bells and whistles to commit to, right?

Because a cleanse or detox, well that my friend, involves giving up the things you and they love, like red wine, gluten and dairy, and maybe other foods that they find on their food sensitivity testing.

Plus, they’ve either experienced before or heard about the dreadful and very possible aggravating symptoms.

Learn with Queen of the Thrones What you should avoid during a Cleanse and Detox process

And how are you going to get them, or yourself to do a complicated cleanse or detox if they don’t have the energy to do it?I mean this is why they are sitting in front of you, with ZERO energy, correct?

So, to even initiate a single task or avoid yourself or your patients experiencing another uncomfortable symptom, you are going to have to get creative. Sound too good to be true?

It’s not, read on…

Because you can cleanse and detox while you sleep,

Here’s how…

What’s in a name? Well, everything.

You know your patients are exhausted, you know the first step to healing is like when you are building a house from scratch.

You clean (cleanse or detox) up the land (your body) before building a house so you have a strong sturdy foundation. Makes sense, agreed?

But if there isn’t any energy, how can this happen?

Easily, with the Queen of the Thrones® Day & Night Detox Kit, complete with your Castor Oil Liver Pack, Eye Compress and Dry Brush.

Once you have your pack on, you then dab a couple drops of castor oil around the fine lines and wrinkles on your face, so you can reduce signs of aging, enhance circulation7 and lymphatic drainage. What’s next?

You then slip on your Eye Compress and get comfy in your bed. When your head hits the pillow you’re relaxed as your eye compress gently blocks out distracting lights and makes you feel sleepy because it supports melatonin production8-9.

Plus, your Castor Oil Liver Pack feels like a hug that naturally stimulates the production of your feel-good hormones, oxytocin10-11 and dopamine12-13, so you’re ready to drift off into a relaxing deep slumber. Wonderful, agreed?

Morning comes and you start your shower, setting aside your Dry Brush & Castor Oil for when you step out. Starting from your ankles, working your way to your heart, you gently brush small circular motions.

The best part? It’s truly relaxing but what it’s doing is delivering anti-inflammatory14 nutrients like vitamin E, polyphenols and omegas15-16 and stimulating lymphatic flow. Why does this matter in the morning? Read on!

Now, you might be wondering because your patients might ask you…

Why and how does cleansing, detox and drainage happen while I’m sleeping?

Working with the body and the natural laws, we are already privy, according to traditional Chinese Medicine Doctors, that the hour of the liver is between 1-3 am, where the majority of liver detox occurs, at 3-5am the lungs supports lymphatic drainage, and at 5-7am is when colon cleansing occurs.

So, detox, drainage and cleansing overnight in the liver, lymphatics and colon can happen overnight when you’re sleeping.

This is connected to chronobiology research, the best time to do things for your body supports what the ancient Chinese doctors already knew.

What supports cleansing overnight, wearing a sleep aid compress to naturally promote melatonin. When you wake up in the morning, naturally pump cortisol with a dry brush.

Day and Night Fluctuations ot your Rest and Alert Hormones by Queen of the Thrones

Both the liver and microbiome are most active during sleep, and there is a lot of cleaning going on, so why not:

  • Promote healthy sleep
  • Support the gut and microbiome
  • Reduce inflammation in the liver

All this to simply support and help the body naturally to do what it is supposed to do, stay clean!

To learn more about how to support the rhythm of your day and night detox cycle Click here.

Are you a practitioner, health coach or wellness influencer? If you’re interested in recommending our easy-to-use tools and practically applying them in your health and wellness professional practice, in clinic, or online with the people you serve, you can join now!

Click here for references

1. Holm T, Brøgger-Jensen MR, Johnson L, Kessel L.Glutathione preservation during storage of rat lenses in opti-sol-GS and castor oil. PLoS One. 2013 Nov 19;8(11):e79620. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079620. eCollection 2013. PMID:24260265

2. Sikandar S, Dickenson AH. Visceral pain: the ins and outs, the ups and downs. Curr Opin Support Palliat Care. 2012 Mar;6(1):17-26. doi: 10.1097/SPC.0b013e32834f6ec9. PMID: 22246042; PMCID: PMC3

3. Arslan GG, Eşer I. An examination of the effect of castor oil packs on constipation in the elderly. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2011 Feb;17(1):58-62. doi: 10.1016/j.ctcp.2010.04.004. Epub 2010 May 18. PMID: 21168117

4. Sorin Tunaru,a Till F. Althoff,a Rolf M. Nüsing,b Martin Diener,c and Stefan Offermannsa,d,1 Castor oil induces laxation and uterus contraction via ricinoleic acid activating prostaglandin EP3 receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Jun 5; 109(23): 9179–9184. Published online 2012 May 21. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1201627109 PMID: 22615395

5. Moore JE Jr, Bertram CD. Lymphatic System Flows. Annu Rev Fluid Mech. 2018 Jan;50:459-482. doi: 10.1146/annurev-fluid-122316-045259. PMID: 29713107; PMCID: PMC5922450

6. Zawieja DC. Contractile physiology of lymphatics. Lymphat Res Biol. 2009;7(2):87-96. doi: 10.1089/lrb.2009.0007. PMID: 19534632; PMCID: PMC2925033.

7. Mascolo N1, Izzo AA, Autore G, Barbato F, Capasso F.Nitric oxide and castor oil-induced diarrhea.J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994 Jan;268(1):291-5. PMID: 8301570.

8. Rong-fang Hu, Xiao-ying Jiang, Yi-ming Zeng, Xiao-yang Chen, You-hua Zhang. Effects of earplugs and eye masks on nocturnal sleep, melatonin and cortisol in a simulated intensive care unit environment. Published online 2010 Apr 18. PMID: 20398302.

9. Khoddam H, Maddah SA, Rezvani Khorshidi S, Zaman Kamkar M, Modanloo M. The effects of earplugs and eye masks on sleep quality of patients admitted to coronary care units: A randomised clinical trial. J Sleep Res. 2022 Apr;31(2):e13473. doi: 10.1111/jsr.13473. Epub 2021 Sep 12. PMID: 34514653.

10. Walker SC1, Trotter PD2, Swaney WT2, Marshall A3, Mcglone FP4. C-tactile afferents: Cutaneous mediators of oxytocin release during affiliative tactile interactions? Neuropeptides. 2017 Aug;64:27-38. doi: 10.1016/j.npep.2017.01.001. Epub 2017 Jan 19. PMID: 28162847.

11. Rolls ET et all. Representations of pleasant and painful touch in the human orbitofrontal and cingulate cortices. Cereb Cortex. 2003 Mar;13(3):308-17. PMID: 12571120.

12. Francis S, Rolls ET, Bowtell R, McGlone F, O’Doherty J, Browning A, Clare S, Smith E. The representation of pleasant touch in the brain and its relationship with taste and olfactory areas. Neuroreport. 1999 Feb 25;10(3):453-9. PMID: 10208571

13. Löken LS, Wessberg J, Morrison I, McGlone F, Olausson H. Coding of pleasant touch by unmyelinated afferents in humans. Nat Neurosci. 2009 May;12(5):547-8. Epub 2009 Apr 12. PMID: 19363489.

14. Vieira C et al. .Eect of ricinoleic acid in acute and subchronic experimental models of inflammation. Mediators Inflamm. 2000;9(5):223-8 PMID: 11200362.

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