How Castor Oil Packs help with constipation from ozempic for weight loss

How Castor Oil Packs help with constipation from ozempic for weight loss

Queen of the Thrones Castor oil pack for constipation problems

How Castor Oil Packs help with constipation from ozempic for weight loss

Written by: Heather Tanti R.P.N (non-practicing)

Medically reviewed by: Victoria Williams R.H.N.

Est. reading time: 7 minutes

Beginning the road to weight loss can be a rollercoaster of emotions filled with highs and lows, agreed? And for those relying on the support of medications like Ozempic for weight loss, the journey can sometimes take an unexpected turn- cue the common, but frustrating side effect: constipation.

It’s more than just a physical discomfort; it’s a hurdle that stands in the way of your wellness goals.

So, let’s unravel the connection between Ozempic, weight loss, and the often overlooked self-care hero – Castor Oil Packs.

What is Ozempic used for?

Queen of the Thrones what is ozempic drug
Ozempic for weight loss is on the rise in popularity lately, and at times for quite controversial reasons. You see, in 2012, Novo Nordisk’s research team formulated Ozempic (also known as semaglutide), to create a diabetes treatment that would last longer than the one offered currently- liraglutide.1

Although Ozempic was designed to regulate blood sugar levels in type 2 diabetes, its rise to fame was unexpected. Ozempic’s side effect of rapid weight loss soon caught the public’s attention, turning it into a highly sought-after drug, especially for celebrities.

Ozempic for Diabetes

Originally, Ozempic was created as a once-weekly injection that helps lower blood sugar in type 2 diabetics by helping the pancreas make more insulin. 

This medication replicates the effects of a hormone called glucagon-like peptide-1, which our bodies naturally produce in our intestines. This hormone suppresses our appetite by signaling to our bodies that we feel full and slows down the rate at which our stomachs empty. 

As a result, individuals with obesity and related health issues have experienced weight loss with ozempic, as it helps them feel fuller faster.

Ozempic for weight loss

Although Ozempic is not primarily marketed as a weight-loss medication, research conducted by Novo Nordisk, the drug’s manufacturer, indicates that individuals who take semaglutide – the active ingredient in Ozempic – may experience weight loss.3

Although weight loss may not be the primary intended result of taking Ozempic, it can still be a significant advantage for individuals who are struggling with weight issues. It’s important to note though, that Ozempic should only be taken under the guidance of a healthcare professional. 

Additionally, incorporating lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet and regular exercise are essential components of any successful weight loss plan.

Possible side-effects of Ozempic for weight loss

Queen of the Thrones side effects of ozempic

With every new medication comes an array of potential side-effects, agreed? Are you guilty of tuning out on those long-winded drug commercials listing their side-effects? I know I am! Ozempic is no exception when it comes to potentially unpleasant side-effects as you’re about to see.

Ozempic and constipation

When taking a medication that slows your digestive system, such as certain appetite suppressants, your stomach will take longer to empty. This results in a feeling of fullness that lasts longer, but it may also lead to a slowdown in bowel movements, delayed gastric emptying, and difficulty passing stools.4 Yikes!
While Ozempic encourages the body to make more insulin (which is great for managing blood sugar levels), insulin also slows down how fast the gut moves, which means you poop less often!5

And because Ozempic makes you feel fuller longer, it may also mean you end up drinking less fluids during the day, which is a huge contributing factor to Ozempic constipation.

So keep those fluids up!

Ozempic and stomach pain

Some users of Ozempic have reported experiences with flu-like symptoms, including cramps and pain.6 And because this medication has been known to alter stomach acid secretion, it can disrupt the digestive system’s food movement, resulting in abdominal discomfort.

At times, abdominal pain can be a result of gastroparesis (a condition characterized by delayed stomach emptying), which can be caused by medications such as Ozempic.7 While this delay can have some encouraging effects, such as suppressing hunger and aiding weight loss efforts, it can also result in stomach discomfort.

Ozempic Face

Have you heard of ‘Ozempic face’? This is a trending topic lately as a side-effect to this medication, leaving some users of Ozempic to experience sagging and aging of facial skin.

Doctors who prescribe Ozempic often don’t talk to patients about its possible effects on the face. It’s common for users to turn to plastic surgery for help with these changes, but it can be difficult for surgeons to handle facial changes caused by quick weight loss. 

Procedures like dermal fillers, skin tightening, and surgery are often used to help restore facial volume and excess skin.8

Queen of the Thrones how ozempic affects the face

Therefore, addressing the potential impact of Ozempic on facial changes is so important, and ensuring open communication between healthcare providers and Ozempic users about this side-effect can help individuals on their weight loss journey to be more aware.

Ozempic risks

Risks associated-with the use of Ozempic by Queen of the Thrones

Allergic reactions

It is important to pay close attention to any possible signs of an allergic reaction when starting a new medication. 

These symptoms may include:

  • Redness, swelling, rash, and itching at the injection site
  • Rash, itching, or hives on the skin
  • Shortness of breath
  • Wheezing or difficulty breathing
  • Swelling of the face, lips, tongue, or other parts of the body9.


Additionally, it is important to inform your healthcare provider of any allergies you have before starting a new medication. This will help them determine the best course of treatment for you and minimize the risk of an allergic reaction! 

Now, let’s shift our gaze to the potential link between diabetic retinopathy and Ozempic.

Diabetic retinopathy

Are you familiar with diabetic retinopathy? This is a condition that affects the eyes and is primarily seen in people with diabetes. 

Now, you might be wondering “How does Ozempic fit into this?”

Some studies suggest a potential link between Ozempic and an increased risk of diabetic retinopathy. Patients who were treated with Ozempic and had poorly controlled blood glucose over a prolonged period, often experienced a higher number of events related to diabetic retinopathy complications.10


Queen of the Thrones explains how diabetic retinopathy is caused

It is important to note that the link between Ozempic and diabetic retinopathy is not fully understood, and more research is needed to establish a clear causation. However, if you are taking Ozempic and notice any changes in your vision, or experience any symptoms related to diabetic retinopathy, it is important to seek medical attention.


What exactly is hypoglycemia? 

Hypoglycemia refers to ‘low blood sugar’, a common occurrence in diabetics that can be dangerous. 

Think of it as a rollercoaster- sudden dips that can leave you feeling shaky, dizzy, sweaty, and downright uncomfortable.11

While Ozempic aims to help manage blood sugar levels, we’re all biochemically unique and for some people it may contribute to hypoglycemia. 

So, how do you learn to spot the signs and take action if you’re experiencing low blood sugar? Awareness is key. Keeping a close eye on your glucose levels, and having snacks on hand in those moments is important.

*Note that any unusual or uncomfortable side-effects/symptoms should always be reported to your healthcare provider.*

Increased risk of thyroid cancer

One Ozempic risk that has sparked conversation is the potential association with increased thyroid cancer risk.12 

While the relationship between Ozempic and thyroid cancer isn’t completely clear, some studies have hinted at an increased risk.

So, should this raise alarm bells? Not necessarily.

However, it’s important to note that the overall risk of developing thyroid cancer is still relatively low. Understanding that every medication comes with potential risks allows us to make informed choices about what may be best for our unique needs.

In the meantime, the Queen of the Thrones® Thyroid Castor Oil Pack makes an excellent self-care companion, giving your thyroid natural TLC.

Thyroid Pack applied to the neck by Queen of the Thrones


Believe it or not, pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas), is a risk associated with Ozempic use. Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a serious medical condition that results from inflammation of the pancreas, which produces digestive enzymes and hormones that regulate blood sugar levels13, making it a vital organ your body relies on.

Awareness is key, and knowing the signs to watch for- such as abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting- will help you to be proactive in your wellness while on Ozempic.

Malnutrition from Ozempic for weight loss

While Ozempic is designed to help with weight loss and type 2 diabetes management, there is a possibility that it may contribute to malnutrition.14  

Why is that? Well, the mechanism behind this lies in Ozempic’s ability to suppress appetite, which leads to decreased food intake.

So, how exactly do you navigate this nutritional crossroad? Firstly, it’s crucial to listen to your body. 

Pay attention to hunger cues, and ensure you’re giving your body the fuel it needs to thrive with a nutritious diet that includes hearty proteins, healthy fats, and heaps of vegetables.

While the goal may be the off-brand use of Ozempic for weight-loss, it shouldn’t come at the expense of the vital nutrients your body needs to function.

Losing extreme amounts of weight can be dangerous, so being aware of how you are feeling, and staying in communication with your healthcare provider will ensure you are receiving guidance and support while using Ozempic.

Castor Oil Packs for constipation

Queen of the Thrones how Castor oil packs help ozempic constipation

Let’s be honest; nobody enjoys constipation… Stomach bloating, cramping, sharp pains… Can you relate? 

Ozempic constipation can be supported with Castor Oil Packs– a natural ally that might just add a touch of comfort when you need it most.

So how exactly do these packs work their magic? 

Castor Oil Packs are a time-tested remedy known for their potential to support balanced inflammation15, colon cleansing16, less-stress17, and best of all- more regular bowel movements!

Plus, Castor Oil Packs can be used with any medication or supplement, bringing you a reliable source of self-care you can feel good about. It often helps them work better!

Queen of the Thrones® heatless, less-mess Castor Oil Packs are your easy solution to this ancient practice that was once messy and complicated. 

Would you love to learn more about self-care with Castor Oil Packs? Check out this blog!

Keep reading to discover just how easy it is to get started with a Castor Oil Liver Pack for Ozempic constipation support and overall wellness.

How to use your Liver Castor Oil Pack

One of the best things about Queen of the Thrones® Castor Oil Packs is how easy they are to use. There’s no big list of steps needed to get started with your self-care, making it a fan-favorite for wellness made simple.

Check it out for yourself!

How to use Queen of the Thrones Castor oil pack

It gets even better my friend. You see, we didn’t just stop at the Castor Oil Pack for your liver, we took self-care further, encompassing a whole body approach to holistic wellness with:

Don’t you just love Mother Nature’s ability to bring you natural wellness solutions? 

So, if you’re navigating the ups and downs of Ozempic and its side effects, Castor Oil Packs are your go-to for simple, natural support for constipation, thyroid care, and hormone balance!


As we resurface from the world of Ozempic side effects, remember that your well-being is important and valued. And just like a well-prepared adventurer equips themselves with tools for the road, you’re now armed with insights into how Castor Oil Packs can help bring you comfort while navigating Ozempic constipation.

It’s important to note that while Castor Oil Packs can be a helpful addition to your constipation, they should not be used as a replacement for medical advice or guidance. As always, consult with your healthcare provider before trying any new remedies or practices. 

Taking care of your wellness is a journey, and with the right resources, you can navigate it successfully!

Are you a practitioner, health coach or wellness influencer? If you’re interested in recommending our easy-to-use tools and practically applying them in your health and wellness professional practice, in clinic, or online with the people you serve, you can join now!

Click here for references
  1. Dhillon S. Semaglutide: First Global Approval. Drugs. 2018 Feb;78(2):275-284. doi: 10.1007/s40265-018-0871-0. PMID: 29363040. 
  1. Ard J, Fitch A, Fruh S, Herman L. Weight Loss and Maintenance Related to the Mechanism of Action of Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor Agonists. Adv Ther. 2021 Jun;38(6):2821-2839. doi: 10.1007/s12325-021-01710-0. Epub 2021 May 11. PMID: 33977495; PMCID: PMC8189979.
  1. Chao AM, Tronieri JS, Amaro A, Wadden TA. Semaglutide for the treatment of obesity. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2023 Apr;33(3):159-166. doi: 10.1016/j.tcm.2021.12.008. Epub 2021 Dec 21. PMID: 34942372; PMCID: PMC9209591.
  1. Shah M, Vella A. Effects of GLP-1 on appetite and weight. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2014 Sep;15(3):181-7. doi: 10.1007/s11154-014-9289-5. PMID: 24811133; PMCID: PMC4119845.
  1. Stassen MP. La gastroparésie diabétique [Diabetic gastroparesis]. Rev Med Liege. 2005 May-Jun;60(5-6):509-15. French. PMID: 16035319.
  1. Filippatos TD, Panagiotopoulou TV, Elisaf MS. Adverse Effects of GLP-1 Receptor Agonists. Rev Diabet Stud. 2014 Fall-Winter;11(3-4):202-30. doi: 10.1900/RDS.2014.11.202. Epub 2015 Feb 10. PMID: 26177483; PMCID: PMC5397288.
  1. Krishnasamy S, Abell TL. Diabetic Gastroparesis: Principles and Current Trends in Management. Diabetes Ther. 2018 Jul;9(Suppl 1):1-42. doi: 10.1007/s13300-018-0454-9. Epub 2018 Jun 22. PMID: 29934758; PMCID: PMC6028327.
  1. Humphrey CD, Lawrence AC. Implications of Ozempic and Other Semaglutide Medications for Facial Plastic Surgeons. Facial Plast Surg. 2023 Dec;39(6):719-721. doi: 10.1055/a-2148-6321. Epub 2023 Aug 4. PMID: 37541662.
  1. Trujillo J. Safety and tolerability of once-weekly GLP-1 receptor agonists in type 2 diabetes. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2020 Sep;45 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):43-60. doi: 10.1111/jcpt.13225. PMID: 32910487; PMCID: PMC7540535.
  1. Coon SA, Crannage EF, Kerwin LC, Guyton JE. Semaglutide once-weekly: improved efficacy with a new safety warning. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2018 Nov;11(11):1061-1072. doi: 10.1080/17512433.2018.1534201. Epub 2018 Oct 16. PMID: 30296182.
  1. Cryer PE. Symptoms of hypoglycemia, thresholds for their occurrence, and hypoglycemia unawareness. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1999 Sep;28(3):495-500, v-vi. doi: 10.1016/s0889-8529(05)70084-0. PMID: 10500927.
  1. Bezin J, Gouverneur A, Pénichon M, Mathieu C, Garrel R, Hillaire-Buys D, Pariente A, Faillie JL. GLP-1 Receptor Agonists and the Risk of Thyroid Cancer. Diabetes Care. 2023 Feb 1;46(2):384-390. doi: 10.2337/dc22-1148. PMID: 36356111.
  1. Walkowska J, Zielinska N, Karauda P, Tubbs RS, Kurtys K, Olewnik Ł. The Pancreas and Known Factors of Acute Pancreatitis. J Clin Med. 2022 Sep 22;11(19):5565. doi: 10.3390/jcm11195565. PMID: 36233433; PMCID: PMC9571992.


  2. Ida S, Kaneko R, Imataka K, Okubo K, Shirakura Y, Azuma K, Fujiwara R, Murata K. Effects of Antidiabetic Drugs on Muscle Mass in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Curr Diabetes Rev. 2021;17(3):293-303. doi: 10.2174/1573399816666200705210006. PMID: 32628589.


  3. Vieira C et al. .Effect of ricinoleic acid in acute and subchronic experimental models of inflammation. Mediators Inflamm. 2000;9(5):223-8 PMID: 11200362


  4. Andrade IM1, Andrade KM2, Pisani MX1, Silva-Lovato CH1, de Souza RF1, Paranhos Hde F1.Trial of an experimental castor oil solution for cleaning dentures. Braz Dent J. 2014 Jan-Feb;25(1):43-7.PMID: 24789291


  5. Walker SC1, Trotter PD2, Swaney WT2, Marshall A3, Mcglone FP4. C-tactile afferents: Cutaneous mediators of oxytocin release during affiliative tactile interactions? Neuropeptides. 2017 Aug;64:27-38. doi: 10.1016/j.npep.2017.01.001. Epub 2017 Jan 19. PMID: 28162847

How Castor Oil Packs and Essential Oils Support Inflammation

How Castor Oil Packs and Essential Oils Support Inflammation

Gluten and dairy sensibilities by Queen of the Thrones

How Castor Oil Packs and Essential Oils Support Inflammation

Written by: Jodi Sternoff, Queen of the Thrones® Affiliate
Medically reviewed by: Melanie Swackhammer BA

Est. reading time: 7 minutes.

Do you struggle with constant inflammation flowing through your body? Or maybe you’re a wellness practitioner and you regularly hear your clients/patients asking you for simple ways to calm their inflamed body. Can you relate?

Did you know that topically applied remedies like essential oils and Castor Oil Packs support body inflammation? Yes, it’s true!

These benefits have shown to help calm many common health issues such as:

  • Weight gain
  • Digestive problems
  • Chronic fatigue
  • Depression
  • Anger
  • Muscle pain
  • Skin problems
  • Autoimmunity

Which are all related to that fiery inflammation in the body, most of which begins in the gut. Makes sense, agreed?

So, by supporting:

  • Healthy gut inflammation
  • Adrenal function
  • Hormone balance
  • Resetting your body’s circadian rhythms

We can dramatically amplify the benefits with Castor Oil Packs & essential oils. Amazing, right?

Would you love to know how you can use Castor Oil Packs to support hormone balance and anti-inflammation?

What Are Essential Oils?

Essential oils are the natural, highly concentrated essences extracted from specific herbs in their living state for their healing capabilities that can be derived from:

  • Plants
  • Shrubs
  • Flowers
  • Grasses
  • Fruits
  • Bushes
  • Seeds
  • Roots
  • Bark
  • Trees

Essential oils provide key components of the plants’ immune systems. They help the plants grow, thrive, evolve and adapt to their surroundings.

How cool is that?

For example, they protect plants from bacterial AND viral infections, as well as heal injuries, repel unwanted insects, prevent water loss and other environmental damage.

They also play a role in plant pollination and deliver oxygen and nutrients into the cells. This is why they are “essential” for a plant — without them, plants could not survive.

Essential Oil benefits in the Human Body

In the human body, they play a similar role when applied topically — transporting valuable nutrients to our cells.

This is because of three primary elements  carbon, hydrogen and oxygen – which are common to both human beings and essential oils.

This shared chemistry makes essential oils highly compatible with human biochemistry, and, since essential oils are bio-familiar to humans, they can also help balance and support the human body to heal itself.

Research has shown that essential oils can support us to fight infection (with anti-bacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties), balance hormones and emotions as well as aid in regeneration.

Health Benefits of blending Essential Oils

While essential oils from individual plants are incredibly powerful, the combination of two or more oils can result in an entirely new molecular composition, known as a “synergy” between oils.

“Synergy” meaning “working together in harmony.”

Findings on medicinal plants in Phytotherapy Research compared the antimicrobial activity of clove and rosemary essential oils alone and in combination, and found that when the two individual oils, when combined, exerted added antimicrobial effects against bacteria, yeast overgrowth, and mold.

My two favorite examples, when it comes to inflammation, are how the anti-inflammatory effect of Roman chamomile is amplified when mixed with lavender while the antispasmodic effects of caraway are enhanced by peppermint.1

Helpful in relieving irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and indigestion! Such valuable combinations, would you agree?

Combining Essential Oils with Queen of the Thrones® Castor Oil

When we combine Queen of the Thrones® Castor Oil with essential oils this can enhance the beneficial effects of the essential oil, allowing them to be more easily assimilated into your body.

Queen of the Thrones® Castor Oil is rich in ricinoleic acid, which easily permeates through the epidermal barrier, or first layer of the skin, due to its low molecular weight,² then into the dermis where the blood and lymphatic vessels are housed.

This factor, when combined with Queen of the Thrones® Castor Oil, allows essential oils to be more easily and gradually assimilated into your system, by helping them permeate deeper into your tissues.


Dilution with Queen of the Thrones® Castor Oil also prevents the essential oil from evaporating as fast as it would if not used with a carrier oil.

Also, this dilution makes it easier to apply essential oils over a larger area of skin, increasing that beneficial absorption.

The Benefits of Castor Oil

Queen of the Thrones® Castor Oil possesses “remarkable effects”, adding to it being the best carrier oil, due in part to its unique active component – ricinoleic acid, such as:

  • Anti-inflammatory3 and analgesic (pain reliever)4
  • Antioxidant and antihistamine5
  • Dopamine support6-7
  • Nitric oxide support8
  • Smooth muscle contraction stimulation9
  • Skin emollient
  • Carrier oil


This anti-inflammation compound of ricinoleic acid helps reduce liver and gallbladder inflammation to allow for easier flow through the bile ducts allowing for easier natural elimination of bile and fat-soluble toxins.

As well as a great emollient for your skin, and is the best carrier oil available.

The Benefits of Essential Oils

Essential oils possess similar anti-inflammatory properties specifically helping to reduce oxidative stress.10

This anti-inflammatory activity of essential oils is due to their major plant compounds, including polyphenols, which is a category of beneficial plant compounds thought to offer various health benefits, including:

  • Hormone balance
  • Adrenal support
  • Calming an inflamed gut
  • Supporting your natural sleep cycles
  • Skin emollient
  • Circadian rhythm

The Benefits of Castor Oil Packs

Queen of the Thrones® Castor Oil Packs for Liver are an equal partnership between both Castor Oil and the compress, complementing each other with the great healing properties they each help support and regulate in the body.

But remember, these activities are only acting at half capacity without the Queen of the Thrones® Castor Oil compress.

Compression is an important part of functional and integrative medicine that has been used for much time.

The application of the Castor Oil compress activates skin receptors and stimulates the visceral somatic reflexes with the placement of the pack over specific dermatomes of the body.11-12-13-14-15

This placement over the liver, gallbladder, large intestine, small intestine, stomach, pancreas, kidney and adrenals shifts the body into a parasympathetic relaxation state.16-17

Adding to the results of further benefiting:

  • Liver Detox18
  • Lymphatic drainage19and cleansing
  • Constipation relief20
  • Less inflammation21
  • Enhanced relaxation and better sleep22-23-24-25

Due to the feedback mechanism activating and enhancing blood flow to those organs.

So when we combine Caster Oil with a Queen of the Thrones® Castor Oil Pack this stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system and lymphatic flow and regulates the immune system promoting liver detox, better bowel movements, less bloating, improved stress and sleep, and therefore an overall improvement in hormonal balance.

Because attention goes where energy flows.

How do Castor Oil Packs + Essential Oils Calm Inflammation?

So, when you combine anti-inflammatory essential oils with anti-inflammatory carrier tools like Queen of the Thrones® Castor Oil Packs to help drive the restorative nature of oils more deeply into your system, it helps to maximize the active properties of both remedies. Amazing, agreed?

My favorite anti-inflammatory Essential Oils to combine with Castor Oil Packs

Plant compounds like polyphenols and flavonoids have been shown to improve blood flow and reduce inflammation.26

And it’s the process of distilling these concentrated plant essences into essential oils that makes them more accessible to help support anti-inflammation

Vibrant Blue Oils offers organic essential oils that are formulated by practitioners into blends that are clinically tested and reviewed to support healthy hormone balance and adrenal health, balance circadian rhythm and support healthy sleep patterns along with calming gut inflammation.

My top 4 favorite blends to use with Queen of the Thrones® Castor Oil Packs are:

  1. ParasympatheticTM
  2. LiverTM
  3. Liver SupportTM
  4. Gall BladderTM

Thank you for being here! I hope you found new ways to talk to your clients/patients about how they can use essential oils and Castor Oil Packs to calm stress and inflammation flowing in through their body.

Jodi’s bio:

Jodi Cohen is a bestselling author, award-winning journalist, and founder of Vibrant Blue Oils, a top resource for essential oils online, which welcomes 300,000 visitors every year.

Her #1 bestselling book, Healing with Essential Oils, synthesizes decades of leading scientific research to help explain how essential oils can work to support the body and the brain.

Read more of our blog posts written by Queen of the Thrones® Affiliates here:

Can I boost fertility with Castor Oil Packs?

3 ways Castor Oil Packs can help you sleep better

Is liver detox the missing piece to your autoimmune flares?

Are you a practitioner, health coach or wellness influencer? If you’re interested in…

  • Recommending our easy-to-use tools to the people you serve.
  • Practically applying them in your health and wellness professional practice in clinic or online.
  • Or becoming a Wholesale Partner
Click here for references

1. Micklefield G, Jung O, Greving I, May B. Effects of intraduodenal application of peppermint oil (WS(R) 1340) and caraway oil (WS(R) 1520) on gastroduodenal motility in healthy volunteers. Phytother Res. 2003 Feb;17(2):135-40. doi: 10.1002/ptr.1089. PMID: 12601675.

2. PubChem [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), National Center for Biotechnology Information; 2004-. PubChem Compound Summary for CID 643684, Ricinoleic acid; [cited 2022 Mar. 16].

3. Boddu SH1, Alsaab H2, Umar S3, Bonam SP2, Gupta H2, Ahmed S3. Anti-inflammatory effects of a novel ricinoleic acid poloxamer gel system for transdermal delivery. Int J Pharm. 2015 Feb 1;479(1):207-11. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2014.12.051. Epub 2014 Dec 24.

4 & 21. Vieira C et al. .Effect of ricinoleic acid in acute and subchronic experimental models of inflammation. Mediators Inflamm. 2000;9(5):223-8. PMID: 11200362.

5. Al-Mamun MA, Akter Z, Uddin MJ, Ferdaus KM, Hoque KM, Ferdousi Z, Reza MA. Characterization and evaluation of antibacterial and antiproliferative activities of crude protein extracts isolated from the seed of Ricinus communis in Bangladesh. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016 Jul 12;16:211. doi: 10.1186/s12906-016-1185-y. PMID: 27405609; PMCID: PMC4942971.

6 & 13 & 16 & 24. Francis S, Rolls ET, Bowtell R, McGlone F, O’Doherty J, Browning A, Clare S, Smith E. The representation of pleasant touch in the brain and its relationship with taste and olfactory areas. Neuroreport. 1999 Feb 25;10(3):453-9. PMID: 10208571

7 & 14 & 17 & 25. Löken LS, Wessberg J, Morrison I, McGlone F, Olausson H. Coding of pleasant touch by unmyelinated afferents in humans. Nat Neurosci. 2009 May;12(5):547-8. Epub 2009 Apr 12. PMID: 19363489

8. Mascolo N1, Izzo AA, Autore G, Barbato F, Capasso F.Nitric oxide and castor oil-induced diarrhea.J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994 Jan;268(1):291-5.

9. Sorin Tunaru,a Till F. Althoff,a Rolf M. Nüsing,b Martin Diener,c and Stefan Offermannsa,d,1 Castor oil induces laxation and uterus contraction via ricinoleic acid activating prostaglandin EP3 receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Jun 5; 109(23): 9179–9184. Published online 2012 May 21. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1201627109 PMID: 22615395

10. Érica Martins de Lavor, Antônio Wilton Cavalcante Fernandes, Roxana Braga de Andrade Teles, Ana Ediléia Barbosa Pereira Leal, Raimundo Gonçalves de Oliveira Júnior, Mariana Gama e Silva, Ana Paula de Oliveira, Juliane Cabral Silva, Maria Tais de Moura Fontes Araújo, Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho, Irwin Rose Alencar de Menezes, Laurent Picot, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida, “Essential Oils and Their Major Compounds in the Treatment of Chronic Inflammation: A Review of Antioxidant Potential in Preclinical Studies and Molecular Mechanisms”, Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2018, Article ID 6468593, 23 pages, 2018.

11 & 22. Walker SC1, Trotter PD2, Swaney WT2, Marshall A3, Mcglone FP4. C-tactile afferents: Cutaneous mediators of oxytocin release during affiliative tactile interactions? Neuropeptides. 2017 Aug;64:27-38. doi: 10.1016/j.npep.2017.01.001. Epub 2017 Jan 19. PMID: 28162847

12 & 23. Rolls ET et all. Representations of pleasant and painful touch in the human orbitofrontal and cingulate cortices. Cereb Cortex. 2003 Mar;13(3):308-17. PMID: 12571120

15. Sikandar S, Dickenson AH. Visceral pain: the ins and outs, the ups and downs. Curr Opin Support Palliat Care. 2012 Mar;6(1):17-26. doi: 10.1097/SPC.0b013e32834f6ec9. PMID: 22246042; PMCID: PMC3272481.

18. Holm T, Brøgger-Jensen MR, Johnson L, Kessel L.Glutathione preservation during storage of rat lenses in opti-sol-GS and castor oil. PLoS One. 2013 Nov 19;8(11):e79620. Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079620. eCollection 2013. PMID: 24260265.

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